Journal of Research in Architecture & Planning
NED University of Engineering & Technology

ISSN 2519-5050 (Online), ISSN 1728-7715 (Print)
Listed in HEC recognized Y category Journal
Listed in Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Scientific Indexing Services & Cross Ref.
Journal DOI:

Previous Volumes

  Mamuna Iqbal, Usman Awan & Mutahir Awan

Article DOI:


Most research on the global level indicates that the education students receive before entering higher education impacts the way they perceive their learning situation. In Pakistan’s scenario, the different types of secondary education (Matric & F.Sc., DAE, and O & A levels) emerging from various early education systems are identified in the literature as imparting unique skills in students. Upon entering the schools of architecture these skills can be found helpful or not by students and define the way they perceive and experience architectural learning. This in return has some pedagogical implications for architecture schools. Through extensive research in 14 architecture schools in Pakistan, the current study explores the types of early education students had before joining the schools of architecture and what is their perception about its usefulness. Data is collected through both the quantitative and qualitative means and analysed using SPSS and Nvivo 12. The findings show that students have found the O and A levels education most helpful in learning architecture, primarily because of its training for critical thinking.


Secondary education in Pakistan, Architectural Learning, learning conception, critical thinking
Volume 31 Issue 2
ISSN (P) 1728-7715 - ISSN (E) 2519-5050
Issue DOI:

All articles published by JRAP are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.